Report Date: December 2020

This state-of-the-art report (SOAR) discusses current and future technologies and techniques for ground and aerial navigation under Global Positioning System (GPS)-denied environments. GPS is an inaugural part of modern navigation and, when spoofed, can have costly outcomes – missed objectives, crashes, and consequences for people and property. This SOAR describes general autonomous approaches for unmanned systems, with added detail for driverless ground vehicles and unmanned aerial systems to mitigate spoofing and operate completely without GPS.


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